Somalia (1960-present)

Pre-Crisis Phase (July 1, 1960-October 14, 1969):  Somalia formally achieved its independence from United Nations (UN) trusteeship under Italian administration on July 1, 1960. Adan Abdullah Osman Daar, president of the Legislative Assembly, was elected provisional president. President Adan Abdullah appointed Abdi Rashid Ali Shirmarke as prime minister on July 12, 1960.

The Egyptian government agreed to provide military assistance to the Somali government on December 15, 1960.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum held on June 20, 1961.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion in northern Somalia in December 1961.

The government of the Soviet Union provided military assistance to the Somali government (weapons, training, and 300 military advisors) beginning in 1962.  Legislative elections were held on March 30, 1964, and the Somali Youth League (SYL) won 69 out of 123 seats in the National Assembly.

The Socialist National Congress (SNC) won 22 seats in the National Assembly.  Abdi Rashid Ali Sharmarke was elected president by the National Assembly in June 1967.

Legislative elections were held on March 24, 1969, and the SYL won 73 out of 124 seats in the National Assembly. The SNC won 11 seats in the National Assembly.

More than 25 individuals were killed in election-related violence. Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal formed a government as prime minister on May 22, 1969.

 

Crisis Phase (October 15, 1969-February 7, 1979): President Shirmarke was assassinated by a government policeman in the town of Las Anod in northern Somalia on October 15, 1969.

Prime Minister Maxamed Xaaji Ibrahim Cigaal was deposed in a military coup led by General Mohammed Siad Barre on October 21, 1969.  The governments of Egypt and Italy provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the military government on October 25, 1969.  The governments of Britain and East Germany provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the Somali government.

The Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) headed by General Barre took control of the government on November 3, 1969. General Barre abolished political parties and suspended the constitution.

The governments of the Soviet Union and Cuba provided military assistance (1,500 Soviet military advisors and 50 Cuban military advisors) to the Somali government.

General Barre suppressed a rebellion on April 21, 1970. The SRC nationalized the country’s banks and oil companies on May 7, 1970.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the Somali government on June 1, 1970.

Vice-President Muhammad Ainanshe Guleid unsuccessfully attempted to overthrow General Barre on May 5, 1971. The SRC was dissolved, and the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (SRSP) headed by General Barre took control of the government on July 1, 1976.

Soviet military advisors were withdrawn from the country in November 1977.

The governments of Egypt, Italy, and Saudi Arabia provided military assistance to the Somali government beginning in 1978.

The Somali government suppressed a military rebellion led by Colonel Abdulaahi Yusuf on April 9, 1978, resulting in the deaths of 20 government soldiers.  The Chinese government agreed to provide economic assistance to the government on April 18, 1978.

On October 26, 1978, seventeen military personnel were executed for their involvement in the military rebellion. Some 200 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (February 8, 1979-March 3, 1992): Colonel Ahmed Abdullah Yusuf formed the Somali Salvation Front (SSF) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in February 1979.

The Libyan government provided military assistance (weapons) to the SSF.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum held on August 25, 1979.

Legislative elections were held on December 30, 1979, and the SRSP won 171 out of 171 seats in the People’s Assembly.  General Barre was elected president by the People’s Assembly on January 26, 1980.

Government troops clashed with SSF rebels on February 8, 1980, resulting in the deaths of 52 government soldiers. Government troops clashed with SSF rebels on July 2-3, 1980, resulting in the deaths of 72 government soldiers.  President Barre declared a state-of-emergency on October 21, 1980, and a 17-member Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) took control of the government on October 23, 1980.  The U.S. and Chinese governments provided military assistance to the Somali government beginning in 1981.

The SSF joined the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Somalia (DFLS) and Somali Workers’ Party (SWP) to form the Democratic Front for the Salvation of Somalia (DFSS) on October 5, 1981.  The Libyan government provided military assistance to the DFSS.

President Barre lifted the state-of-emergency on March 1, 1982.  DFSS rebels, supported by Ethiopian government troops, attacked government troops in Balumbale on June 30, 1982.  The U.S. government provided emergency military assistance to the government.  DFSS rebels killed 20 government soldiers in Garaya Cawl, Toghdeer province in February 1983.Somalia National Movement (SNM) rebels launched a military offensive against the government on November 13, 1984.

Legislative elections were held on December 31, 1984, and the SRSP won 171 out of 171 seats in the People’s Assembly.   The Libyan government suspended military assistance to the DFSS in April 1985.  Hassan Haji Ali Mireh was appointed as head of the DFSS in March 1986.

President Barre was re-elected without opposition on December 23, 1986.  Government troops and demonstrators clashed in Mogadishu on July 14-16, 1989, resulting in the deaths of some 400 individuals. Several Somali politicians signed the Mogadishu Manifesto No.1 in May 1990, which called for the resignation of President Barre.  Some 60 individuals were killed during a demonstration against the government on July 6, 1990.

Italy ended military assistance and withdrew its 56 military advisors on July 11, 1990.   President Barre dismissed Prime Minister Mohamed Ali Samatar, and appointed Mohamed Hawadie Madar as prime minister on September 3, 1990. United Somali Congress (USC) rebels attacked Mogadishu in December 1990 and January 1991, resulting in the death of some 5,000 individuals.

The USC rejected an Italian-proposed peace plan on January 9, 1991. Prime Minister Mohammed Hawadie Madar resigned on January 20, 1991.  President Barre fled the country on January 26, 1991, and USC rebels took control of Mogadishu on January 27, 1991.

Ali Mahdi Mohammed of the USC formed a government as provisional president on January 29, 1991.  General Mohamed Farah Aidid was elected as chairman of the USC on July 5, 1991.  Supporters of President Ali Mahdi and General Aidid clashed in Mogadishu on September 5-7, 1991, resulting in the deaths of some 300 individuals. Medicins Sans Frontieres (MSF) established a mission to provide humanitarian assistance to civilians beginning in 1991. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) established a mission to provide humanitarian and repatriation assistance to Somalis beginning in 1992.

The United Nations(UN) Security Council imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against Somali rival groups on January 23, 1992.  Representatives of the UN,League of Arab States (LAS), Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), and Organization of African Unity (OAU) began a joint mediation effort on February 13, 1992.  General Aidid was dismissed as chairman of the USC in February 1992, and General Aidid established the Somali National Alliance(SNA).

The UN/LAS/OIC/OAU coalition mediated the signing of a ceasefire agreement by Somali factions on March 3, 1992.  Some 250,000 individuals died and some 2.8 million individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (March 4, 1992-August 25, 1995): On April 24, 1992, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM I) to monitor the ceasefire and protect the delivery of humanitarian assistance.  At its maximum strength, UNOSOM I consisted of 54 military observers and 893 peacekeeping troops from 16 countries commanded by Brig.

General Imtiaz Shaheen of Pakistan.  The UN secretary-general appointed Mohamed Sahnoun of Algeria as UN special representative to Somalia on April 28, 1992.  The UN Security Council increased the number of peacekeeping troops in Somalia to 3,500 on August 28, 1992.

Ismat Kittani of Iraq was appointed as special envoy of the UN secretary-general to Somalia on November 3, 1992.  Some 150,000 individuals died of starvation between March and November 1992.

On December 3, 1992, the UN Security Council authorized the establishment of the US-led Unified Task Force in Somalia (UNITAF) to protect the delivery of humanitarian assistance in Somalia (Operation Restore Hope).  UNITAF, which consisted of 37,000 troops from 27 countries, was deployed on December 9, 1992.

UN Special Envoy Lansana Kouyate of Guinea facilitated a conference on national reconciliation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from March 12-27, 1993.

The Somali factions agreed to establish aTransitional National Council (TNC) to govern the country for a two-year period.  UNOSOM I was disbanded on March 25, 1993.

Six UNOSOM I military personnel were killed during the mission.  On March 26, 1993, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Operation in Somalia(UNOSOM II) to monitor the ceasefire agreement, assist with the disarmament of the factions, provide security for airports and ports required for the delivery of humanitarian assistance, and protect UN, ICRC, and other NGO personnel.

UNOSOM II consisted of 28,000 peacekeeping troops and civilian police personnel from 33 countries commanded by Lt. General Cevik Bir of Turkey (April 1993 to January 1994) and Lt.-General Aboo Samah Bin Aboo Bakar of Malaysia (January 1994 to March 1995).

UNITAF was disbanded on May 4, 1993. Fifty-two UNITAF personnel were killed during the mission, including 43 U.S. military personnel.  Twenty-five UNOSOM-II peacekeeping troops were killed during an attack by General Aidid’s militia in Mogadishu on June 5, 1993.

On June 17, 1993, the UN requested General Aidid to surrender to UN troops for an investigation of his role in the killing of the UN peacekeeping troops.  Eighteen US soldiers were killed during a military operation against General Aidid’s forces in Mogadishu on October 3, 1993.

On November 16, 1993, the UN Security Council established a commission of inquiry (Ghana, Finland, Zambia) headed by Matthew Ngulube of Zambia to investigate the killing of UN peacekeeping troops in Mogadishu.

The US withdrew its troops from Somalia on March 31, 1994.

UNSCOM II was disbanded on March 2, 1995.  Some 154 UNOSOM II personnel, including 149 military personnel and three international civilian staff members, were killed during the mission.

Secretary-General Kofi Annan established the United Nations Political Office in Somalia (UNPOS) on April 15, 1995.  UNPOS consisted of ten international staff personnel.

General Aidid proclaimed himself president on June 15, 1995.  Some 200,000 individuals died and some 750,000 individuals were displaced between March 1992 and August 1995.

Conflict Phase (August 26, 1995-December 23, 1997):

Some 22 individuals were killed in clashes between rival militias in Mogodishu on August 26-29, 1995. General Aidid’s troops captured Baidoa on September 17, 1995.

The Libyan government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Aidid on November 6, 1995. General Aidid died of wounds on August 1, 1996, and Hussein Mohamed Farah Aidid was elected provisional president by the USC-SNA faction on August 4, 1996. Some 25 individuals were killed in clashes near Mogadishu on August 24-25, 1996.  President Daniel Moi of Kenya mediated negotiations among the factions in Nairobi on October 8-15, 1996, resulting in the signing of a ceasefire agreement on October 15, 1996. Thirteen individuals were killed in Mogadishu on October 29, 1996.

TheOrganization of African Unity (OAU) facilitated negotiations between several Somali factions in Sodere, Ethiopia beginning in November 1996. On January 3, 1997, the factions agreed to establish the 41-memberNational Salvation Council (NSC) and the 11-member National Executive Committee (NEC). David Stephen of Britain was appointed as head of UNPOS on January 10, 1997.

The Egyptian government and the League of Arab States (LAS) facilitated negotiations between Somali factions in Cairo beginning on November 12, 1997. Somali factions signed an agreement in Cairo on December 23, 1997, which provided for the cessation of military hostilities and the establishment of an interim government in Somalia. Some 100,000 individuals died and some 1.5 million individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (December 24, 1997-December 18, 2000):

The United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) assisted with the repatriation of 51,500 Somalis from Ethiopia and Kenya in 1998, but some 140,000 Somali refugees remained in Kenya in December 1998. Some 100 individuals were killed in political violence in Kismayo between March 30 and May 8, 1998. Some 22 individuals were killed in political violence in Mogadishu on March 14, 1999. The LAS offered to facilitate a resumption of negotiations between Somali factions on June 22, 1999. One MSF personnel was killed near Jilib in August 1999. Some 13 individuals were killed in political violence in Kismayo on September 20-21, 1999.

One CARE personnel was killed on January 2, 2000. The ICRC mission for Somalia consisted of 11 international personnel and 27 local personnel in January 2000. Eleven individuals were killed near Mogadishu on January 11-12, 2000. Some 13 individuals were killed in political violence in southern Somalia on February 4-5, 2000. Some 20 individuals were killed in political violence in the Hiran region on March 20-21, 2000.

The government of Djibouti facilitated negotiations between Somali factions in the city of Djibouti beginning on May 2, 2000. Some 30 individuals were killed in political violence near the town on Qoryooley on June 22-24, 2000. Eleven individuals were killed in political violence in central Somalia on August 11, 2000.

Abdiqassim Salad Hassan was elected president by the transitional parliament with 61 percent of the vote in the third round held on August 26, 2000.

Abdiqassim Salad Hassan was inaugurated as president on August 27, 2000.  The Egyptian government expressed support for the government of President Abdiqassim Salad Hassan on August 28, 2000, and the Sudanese government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government on August 28, 2000.

Some 25 individuals were killed in political violence in the Shabelle region on September 4, 2000. President Hassan and Hussein Aideed signed a Libyan-facilitated reconciliation pact in Libya on September 22, 2000. President Hassan appointed Ali Khalif Gallayr, a member of the Darod clan, as prime minister on October 8, 2000. Some 1,000 individuals were killed in political violence between December 1997 and December 2000.

Conflict Phase (December 19, 2000-October 27, 2002):

Government troops commanded by General Mohamed Nur Galal and members of the militia faction led by Musi Sudi Yalahow clashed in the town of Balad on December 19, 2000. Rival factions clashed in Mogadishu on May 11-12, 2001, resulting in the deaths of 40 individuals.

The Ethiopian government began mediation efforts between the rival factions on June 19, 2001. Government troops and militia factions clashed in Mogadishu on July 12-16, 2001, resulting in the deaths of 72 individuals.

The government of Prime Minister Ali Khalif Galayr collapsed as a result of a vote of no-confidence on October 28, 2001, and Osman Jama Ali served as Acting Prime Minister from October 28 to November 12, 2001.  Hassan Abshir Farar formed a government as prime minister on November 12, 2001.

The Kenyan government facilitated the signing of a peace agreement between representatives of the Transitional National Government (TNG) and opposition factions in Nakuru, Kenya on December 25, 2001.

Some 20 individuals were killed in political violence in Mogadishu on December 27-29, 2001. Government police and militia troops clashed in Mogadishu on December 28, 2001, resulting in the deaths of six government policemen and three civilians.

Some 50 individuals were killed in political violence in the Mudug region on January 25-26, 2002. Government troops clashed with members of the militia faction led by Musi Sudi Yalahow in Mogadishu on May 28, 2002, resulting in the deaths of some 60 individuals. Rival factions of the Rahanweyn Resistance Amry (RRA) clashed in Baidoa on July 1-10, 2002, resulting in the deaths of some 40 individuals. Some 30 individuals were killed in political violence in Medina district in Mogadishu on July 23-24, 2002.

Rival factions resumed military hostilities in Baidoa on July 27, 2002. Several hundred individuals were killed during clashes between rival factions in Baidoa in July and August 2002.

Some 15 individuals were killed in political violence in the districts of Karaan and Yaqshiid on September 3-4, 2002. Representatives of the TNG and 22 Somali factions held Inter-Governmental Authority on Development(IGAD)-mediated negotiations in Eldorat, Kenya on October 15, 2002, and the parties signed the Declaration of Cessation of Hostilities on October 27, 2002. Some 9,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (October 28, 2002-December 19, 2006): 

Amara Essy, interim chairman of the Commission of the African Union (AU), appointed Muhammad Ali Foum of Tanzania as special envoy for Somalia on November 21, 2002.

Representatives of the TNG and five Mogadishu-based factions signed a ceasefire agreement on December 3, 2002.  EU foreign ministers imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the rival factions beginning on December 10, 2002.  Muhammad Abdi Yusuf was appointed as prime minister on December 8, 2003.  Abdullah Yusuf Ahmed was elected president and head of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) by an electoral college on October 10, 2004, and he was inaugurated as president on October 14, 2004.

Some 100 individuals were killed in violence in the Galgudud and Mudug regions in December 2004.  Ali Mohammed Ghedi was approved as prime minister on November 3, 2004.

The government of Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Ghedi was dismissed by the parliament on December 11, 2004, but he was re-appointed as prime minister by the parliament on December 23, 2004.

UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Francois Lonseny Fall of Guinea as UN Special Representative for Somalia beginning on May 3, 2005.  Members of theAlliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism (ARPCT) and the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) clashed in Mogadishu beginning on February 18, 2006.  ICU forces gained control of Mogadishu on June 5, 2006.  Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and ICU representatives participated in League of Arab States (LAS)  and Sudan-mediated negotiations in Khartoum, Sudan on June 22, 2006.  On June 22, 2006, the representatives of the ICU and TFG agreed to recognize each other, to continue negotiations, and to cease military hostilities.  On June 26, 2006, the leaders of the ICU announced the creation of the 90-member Supreme Court of the Islamic Courts (SCIC) headed by Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweis.

Some 10,000 Ethiopian troops intervened in support of the Somali government beginning on July 20, 2006.  The League of Arab States (LAS) and the Sudanese government mediated negotiations between representatives of the TFG and ICU in Khartoum on September 1-4, 2006.  President Yusuf survived an assassination attempt on September 18, 2006, resulting in the deaths of eleven individuals.

Conflict Phase (December 20, 2006-present): 

Islamic Courts Union (ICU) militants attacked Baidoa, the location of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG), beginning on December 20, 2006.  The League of Arab States (LAS) appealed for a cessation of military hostilities on December 23, 2006.  Somali government troops and Ethiopian troops captured Beledweyne on December 25, 2006.  Somali government troops and Ethiopian troops captured Mogadishu on December 28, 2006.

Some 1,000 Islamic militants, 500 Ethiopian soldiers, and 200 Somali government soldiers were killed in 2006.  Nine individuals were killed in clashes between rival clans in the town of Biyo-Adde on January 13, 2007.

On January 13, 2007, the Somali parliament, meeting in the town of Baidoa, voted to impose martial law throughout the country for three months.  TheAfrican Union (AU) Peace and Security Council established the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) on January 19, 2007.

AMISOM was mandated to provide security security for the transitional Somali government, assist with disarmament efforts, and facilitate the delivery of humanitarian assistance.

General Levi Karuhanga of Uganda was appointed as the first commander of AMISOM on February 14, 2007.  Some 21, 564 AMISOM military personnel were contributed by Uganda (6,223 troops), Burundi (5,432 troops), Ethiopia (4,395 troops), Kenya (3,664 troops), Djibouti (1,000 troops), and Sierra Leone (850 troops).  In addition, more than 500 AMISOM civilian police personnel were contributed by Burundi, Gambia, Ghana (56 personnel), Nigeria (200 personnel), Kenya (48 personnel), Sierra Leone (47 personnel), and Uganda (201 personnel).

At least 81 civilian staff personnel operated from Nairobi, Kenya.  Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on February 19-20, 2007, resulting in the deaths of at least ten civilians.  The AMISOM was authorized by the UN Security Council on February 21, 2007.

Somali and Ethiopian government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu in March and April 2007, resulting in the deaths of some 1,500 individuals and displacement of some 400,000 individuals.  Four African Union (AU) peacekeeping soldiers were killed in a roadside bombing near Mogadishu on May 16, 2007.

The U.S. government appointed John Yates as U.S. Special Envoy for Somalia on May 18, 2007.  Following an attack on their convoy on May 30, 2007, Ethiopian troops killed five civilians in the town of Beledweyne.  At least six individuals were killed in a suicide bomb attack on the prime minister’s residence in Mogadishu on June 3, 2007.

At least three individuals were killed following a grenade attack against a military convoy in Mogadishu on June 4, 2007.  Islamic militants attacked a Ethiopian military base near Mogadishu on July 30-31, 2007, resulting in the deaths of at least four individuals.

Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on August 1-2, 2007, resulting in the deaths of at least eight individuals. The ICU and other Somali opposition groups united to form the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) in Eritrea in September 2007.

On September 12, 2007, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah of Mauritania as UN Special Representative for Somalia.  Islamic militants attacked a government police base in Mogadishu on September 14, 2007, resulting in the deaths of six individuals.

Islamic militants attacked a government military base in Mogadishu on September 19, 2007, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.  Ethiopian troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on October 21, 2007, resulting in the deaths of at least eight civilians.  Somali and Ethiopian troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on October 27-28, 2007, resulting in the deaths of some 13 individuals.

Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Ghedi resigned on October 29, 2007.  Somali and Ethiopian troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on November 2, 2007, resulting in the deaths of at least five Ethiopian soldiers and seven civilians.  Ethiopian troops killed more than 70 individuals, mostly civilians, in Mogadishu on November 8-9, 2007.

President Abdulahi Yusuf appointed Nur Hassan Hussein as prime minister on November 22, 2007.  At least 17 individuals were killed in a mortar attack in Mogadishu on December 13, 2007.  Government police clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on February 19, 2008, resulting in the deaths of six individuals.  Major General Francis Okello of Uganda took over as commander of AMISOM on March 3, 2008.

Islamic militants killed four government soldiers and one civilian at a check-point near Mogadishu on March 6, 2008.

Islamic militants killed five government soldiers in the town of Beledweyne on March 7, 2008.  Somali and Ethiopian troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on April 19-20, 2008, resulting in the deaths of at least 33 individuals.  After two Ethiopian soldiers were killed by a roadside bomb, Ethiopian troops killed at least 12 civilians in the town of Baidoa on April 30, 2008.  Ethiopian troops clashed with Islamic militants near the village of Garsani in central Somalia on May 7, 2008, resulting in the deaths of eight Ethiopian soldiers and ten civilians.  Islamic militants attacked a government police station in Mogadishu on May 9, 2008, resulting in the deaths of two government policemen, two government soldiers, and one civilian.

The UN mediated negotiations between representatives of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) in Djibouti beginning on May 31, 2008.

Somali and Ethiopian troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on June 6-8, 2008, resulting in the deaths of some 28 individuals.  The TFG and ARS agreed to a UN-mediated three-month cessation of military hostilities on June 9, 2008.

Some factions of Islamic militants rejected the ceasefire agreement.  Islamic militants killed nine government policemen in Mogadishu on June 27, 2008.  Somali and Ethiopian troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu and Mataban on July 2, 2008, resulting in the deaths of at least 21 individuals.  Al-Shabaab militants attacked a government military base in Baidoa on July 8, 2008, resulting in the death of one government soldier.

Somali and Ethiopia troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on July 17, 2008, resulting in the deaths of as many as 35 individuals.  One African Union (AU) peacekeeping soldier from Uganda was killed by a roadside bomb in Mogadishu on August 1, 2008.  At least 20 individuals, mostly women, were killed by a roadside bomb in Mogadishu on August 3, 2008.

Representatives of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) formally signed the UN-mediated “Djibouti Agreement on Justice and Reconciliation” August 19, 2008.  Islamic militants took control of the port of Kismayo on August 20-22, 2008, resulting in the deaths of some 100 individuals.  Some 25,000 individuals were displaced as a result of the fighting in Kismayo.

TwoAfrican Union (AU) peacekeeping soldiers from Uganda were killed in attacks in Mogadishu on September 14-15, 2008.  Islamic militants shelled the main market in Mogadishu on October 7, 2008, resulting in the deaths of at least 20 individuals.

The TFG and ARS signed a “ceasefire-observance agreement” on October 26, 2008.  On November 20, 2008, the UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions (assets freeze and travel ban) against individuals engaged in activities that threatened the peace and political process in Somalia.

Government security forces clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on November 21, 2008, resulting in the deaths of 15 militants.

President Abdullah Yusuf Ahmed dismissed Prime Minister Nur Hassan Hussein on December 14, 2008, but the Somali parliament supported Prime Minister Hussein in a vote of confidence on December 15, 2008.  On December 21, 2008, the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) meeting of foreign ministers expressed support for Prime Minister Nur Hassan Hussein and imposed economic sanctions (assets freeze and travel ban) against President Abdullah Yusuf Ahmed and his associates.

President Abdullah Yusuf Ahmed announced his resignation on December 29, 2008.  Adan Mohamed Nuur Madobe was appointed as interim president on December 29, 2008.

Rival Islamic militant groups competed for control of Somalia during the withdrawal of Ethiopia troops from the country beginning on December 29, 2008, resulting in the deaths of dozens of individuals. Fifteen civilians and one government policeman were killed in a suicide car bombing in Mogadishu on January 24, 2009.

Ethiopian troops completed their withdrawal from Somalia on January 25, 2009.  Sheikh Sharif Ahmed, the former commander-in-chief of the ICU, was elected president by the transitional parliament by 70 percent of the vote on January 30, 2009.

Eighteen civilians were killed in a bombing against an African Union (AU) peacekeeping convoy in Mogadishu on February 2, 2009.  African Union(AU) peacekeeping troops killed more than 20 Al-Shabaab militants following the bombing.

President Sheikh Sharif Ahmed appointed Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, son of former President Abdi Rashid Ali Sharmarke, as prime minister on February 13, 2009.

Islamic militants bombed an African Union (AU) peacekeeping convoy in Mogadishu on February 22, 2009, resulting in the deaths of eleven AU peacekeeping soldiers from Burundi.

Al-Shabaab militants captured the town of Hudur on February 25, 2009, resulting in the deaths of eleven individuals.

Al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam militants launched a military offensive against Somali government troops in Mogadishu on May 8, 2009.  At least 14 individuals were killed in a mortar attack on a mosque in Mogadishu on May 10, 2009.

Al-Shabaab militants captured the town of Jowhar on May 17 2009, resulting in the deaths of seven individuals.  Pro-government troops launched successive military offensives against militants in Mogadishu beginning on May 22, 2009.  Six government soldiers and one civilian were killed in a suicide bombing at a government military base in Mogadishu on May 24, 2009.

Five government policemen were killed in a roadside bombing in Mogadishu on June 1, 2009.  Pro-government militiamen clashed with Islamic militants in the town of Webho on June 5, 2009, resulting in the deaths of at least 36 individuals.

Al-Shabaab militants bombed the Medina Hotel in Beledweyne on June 18, 2009, resulting in the deaths of some 35 individuals (including the Somali Security Minister Omar Hashi Aden).

The hotel bombing in Beledweyne was condemned by the AU, EU, UN, LAS, and IGAD on June 18, 2009.  President Sheikh Sharif Ahmed declared a nationwide state of emergency on June 22, 2009.

The U.S. government provided military assistance (weapons and ammunition) to the Somali government in June 2009.  More than 250 individuals were killed, and some 160,000 individuals were displaced during fighting in Mogadishu in May and June 2009.

Twelve civilians were killed by government forces in Mogadishu on July 5, 2009.  Major General Nathan Mugisha of Uganda took over as commander of AMISOM on July 7, 2009.

Government troops attacked Islamic militants near the presidential palace in Mogadishu on July 13, 2009, resulting in the deaths of more than 40 Islamic militants and three government soldiers.  Islamic militants attacked a UN facility in Wajid on August 17, 2009, resulting in the deaths of three militants.

Government troops clashed with al-Shabaab militants in Mogadishu on August 21, 2009, resulting in the deaths of more than 20 individuals.  U.S. military forces killed six Islamic militants, including Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan, on September 15, 2009.

Al-Shabaab militants bombed the headquarters of AMISOM in Mogadishu on September 17, 2009, resulting in the deaths of 17 African Union (AU) peacekeeping soldiers (12 Burundian and five Ugandan soldiers) and four Somali civilians.  Major General Juvenal Niyonguruza, Deputy Commander of the African Union (AU) peacekeeping mission, was killed in the suicide bombing.

Another 19 Somali civilians were killed in clashes between Al-Shabaab militants and African Union (AU) troops following the AMISOM headquarters bombings.  The bombing of the AMISOM headquarters was condemned by the U.S., Norway, AU, EU, LAS, IGAD, and UN on September 17, 2009.

Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on October 22, 2009, resulting in the deaths of some 20 individuals.  Twenty-three individuals, including three government ministers, were killed in a suicide bombing at a graduation ceremony in Mogadishu on December 3, 2009.

The suicide bombing was condemned by the African Union (AU).  Three government policemen were killed in a roadside bombing in Bossaso on December 15, 2009.  Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on December 21, 2009, resulting in the deaths of three civilians.

Sheikh Daud Ali Hasan, a senior commander of al-Shabaab, was killed in Kismayo on March 20, 2010.  Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on April 13, 2010, resulting in the deaths of some 13 individuals.  At least 30 individuals were killed in the bombing of a mosque in Mogadishu on May 1, 2010.  Al-Shabaab militants fired mortars at the presidential palace in Mogadishu on May 23, 2010, resulting in the deaths of 14 individuals.

Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on June 4, 2010, resulting in the deaths of at least 28 individuals.  On June 9, 2010, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Augustine P. Mahigaof of Tanzania as UN Special Representative for Somalia and Head of UNPOS.

Al-Shabaab militants attacked an African Union (AU) base in Mogadishu on July 23, 2010, resulting in the deaths of two AU peacekeeping soldiers from Uganda.  Some ten Islamic militants were killed while preparing a car bomb in Mogadishu on August 21, 2010.

Islamic militants attacked a hotel in Mogadishu on August 24, 2010, resulting in the deaths of at least 32 individuals (including six members of parliament).

Islamic militants fired a mortar at the presidential palace in Mogadishu on August 30, 2010, resulting in the deaths of four African Union (AU) peacekeeping soldiers.  In September 2010, AMISOM consisted of some 7,200 troops.  Islamic suicide bombers attacked the main airport in Mogadishu on September 9, 2010, resulting in the deaths of several individuals (including two AU peacekeeping soldiers).

Prime Minister Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke resigned on September 21, 2010.  Abdiwahid Elmi Gonjeh served as Acting Prime Minister from September 24 to October 31, 2010.  Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed was appointed as prime minister by President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed on October 14, 2010, and he was sworn in as prime minister on October 31, 2010.

Government troops and pro-government (Ahlu Sunnah Wal Jama) militiamen captured the town of Bulo Hawo from al-Shabaab militants on October 18, 2010, resulting in the deaths of eleven militants and one government soldier.  Government troops clashed with government policemen in Mogadishu on January 31, 2011, resulting in the deaths of at least 16 individuals.

African Union (AU) peacekeeping troops clashed with al-Shabaab clashed in Mogadishu on February 20, 2011, resulting in the deaths of six al-Shabaab militants and two AU peacekeeping soldiers.  At least 20 individuals were killed in a suicide car bombing in Mogadishu on February 21, 2011.

Twelve individuals were killed in artillery shelling in Mogadishu on February 21-22, 2011.  Some 53African Union (AU) peacekeeping soldiers (43 Burundian and 10 Ugandan) and were killed in clashes with Al-Shabaab militants in Mogadishu between February 23 and March 4, 2011.  Six African Union (AU) peacekeeping soldiers were killed in clashes with Al-Shabaab militants in Mogadishu on March 17, 2011.

Twelve African Union (AU) peacekeeping soldiers were killed in clashes with Al-Shabaab militants in Mogadishu between May 12 and June 11, 2011.  Major General Fredrick Mugisha of Uganda took over as commander of AMISOM on June 15, 2011.

Prime Minister Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed resigned on June 19, 2011, and Abdiweli Mohamed Ali was appointed as prime minister on June 23, 2011.  Four African Union (AU) peacekeeping soldiers were killed during clashes with Al-Shabaab militants in Mogadishu on July 29, 2011.  Government troops and African Union (AU) peacekeeping troops captured Mogadishu from al-Shabaab militants on August 6, 2011.

Government troops clashed with al-Shabaab militants in the semi-autonomous region of Puntland on September 2-3, 2011, resulting in the deaths of some 60 individuals (including eight government soldiers and 40 al-Shabaab militants).  Al-Shabaab militants attacked the town of Elwaq on September 10, 2011, resulting in the deaths of twelve individuals.

More than 70 individuals were killed in a suicide truck bombing in Mogadishu on October 4, 2011.  Government troops and African Union (AU) peacekeeping troops defeated the last major al-Shabaab militant stronghold in Mogadishu on October 10, 2011, resulting in the deaths of one AU peacekeeping soldier and eight civilians.

Some 6,000 Kenyan troops intervened in support of the transitional Somali government in southern Somalia beginning on October 16, 2011.

Some 70 African Union (AU) peacekeeping soldiers from Burundi were killed by Al-Shabaab militants in Mogadishu on October 20, 2011.  Kenyan troops clashed with al-Shabaab militants near the town of Tabda on October 27, 2011, resulting in the deaths of  nine militants.

Ethiopia troops launched a military offensive against al-Shabaab militants in Somalia on November 19-20, 2011.  Ethiopian troops captured the town of Beledweyne from al-Shabaab militants on December 31, 2011, resulting in the deaths of some 20 individuals.

On February 22, 2012, the UN Security Council voted to increase the size of AMISOM from 12,000 to 17,731 peacekeeping personnel.  Al-Shabaab militants bombed the newly re-opened national theater in Mogadishu on April 4, 2012, resulting in the deaths of eight individuals.

Al-Shabaab militants bombed a market in Baidoa on April 9, 2012, resulting in the deaths of twelve individuals.  Lt. General Andrew Gutti of Uganda took over as commander of AMISOM on May 2, 2012.  AMISOM assumed command of some 4,664 Kenyan troops in Somalia on July 6, 2012.

The mandate of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) expired on August 20, 2012.  The National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution on August 1, 2012.  Two Somali politicians, Muse Hassan Sheikh Sayid Abdulle  and Mohamed Osman Jawari, served as acting presidents of Somalia from August 20 to September 16, 2012.

Hassan Sheikh Mohamud was elected president by the 275-member federal parliament with 71 percent of the vote in the second round on September 10, 2012, and he was inaugurated as president on September 16, 2012.  Fourteen individuals were killed in a restaurant bombing in Mogadishu on September 20, 2012.  On October 6, 2012, Abdi Farah Shirdon was appointed prime minister by President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, and he was sworn in as prime minister on October 17, 2012.

Four African Union (AU) peacekeeping personnel were killed in a bombing near Baidoa on October 24, 2012.  One security guard was killed in a suicide bombing of a restaurant in Mogadishu on November 3, 2012.  The U.S. provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the Somali government on January 17, 2013.

A suicide bomber attacked the offices of Somalia’s president and prime minister in Mogadishu on January 29, 2013, resulting in the deaths of two government security guards.  The British government announced its decision to provide economic assistance to the Somali government on February 4, 2013.  The UN Security Council suspended military sanctions (arms embargo) for the Somali government on March 6, 2013.  At least ten individuals were killed in a suicide car bombing near the presidential palace in Mogadishu on March 18, 2013.

On April 9, 2013, the U.S. government agreed to provide military assistance (including military advisers) to the Somali government.  Nineteen individuals were killed in Islamic militants attacks in Mogadishu on April 14, 2013.  On April 29, 2013, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Nicholas Kay of the United Kingdom as UN Special Representative for Somalia.

Seven individuals were killed in a suicide car bombing in Mogadishu on May 4, 2013.  Islamic militants attacked a United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) office in Mogadishu on June 19, 2013, resulting in the deaths of at least 15 individuals (including eight security guards).

On June 20, 2013, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the attack on the UNDP office.  Five civilians were killed in a suicide car bombing in Mogadishu on July 12, 2013.  Fifteen individuals were killed when al-Shabaab militants attacked a restaurant near the presidential palace in Mogadishu on September 7, 2013.  UN Special Representative Nicholas Kay condemned the attack on the restaurant.

At least sixteen individuals were killed in a suicide bombing at a restaurant in the town of Beledweyne on October 19, 2013.  Two senior al-Shabaab commanders were killed in a U.S. military airstrike near the towns of Jilib and Barawe on October 28, 2013.

At least six individuals were killed in a suicide car bombing of a hotel in Mogadishu on November 8, 2013.  At least nineteen individuals were killed in a suicide attack against a government police station in the town of Beledweyne on November 19, 2013.

Lt. General Silas Ntigurirwa of Burundi took over as commander of AMISOM in December 2013.  Prime Minister Abdi Farah Shirdon lost a vote of no-confidence in the Somali parliament on December 2, 2013.  Seven individuals were killed in a car bomb attack in Bosasso in the semi-autonomous region of Puntland on December 5, 2013.

President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud appointed Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed as prime minister on December 12, 2013, and Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed was sworn in as prime minister on December 21, 2013.

At least eleven individuals were killed in suicide car bombings near a hotel in Mogadishu on January 1, 2014.  Abdiweli Ali Gas was elected president of the semi-autonomous region of Puntland on January 8, 2014.

Kenyan military forces carried out an airstrike against an Islamic militant camp in Garbarahey on January 9, 2014, resulting in the deaths of some 30 militants.

More than 4,000 Ethiopian soldiers serving in Somalia were formally incorporated into the AU peacekeeping mission in Somalia on January 22, 2014.

Sahal Iskudhuq, a senior al-Shabaab commander, and four other militants were killed by a U.S. military missile strike near the town of Barawe on January 27, 2014.

At least seven individuals were killed in a car bombing at the main airport in Mogadishu on February 13, 2014.  Al-Shabaab militants attacked the presidential palace in Mogadishu on February 21, 2014, resulting in the deaths of nine militants and several government security guards.

At least 12 individuals were killed in a suicide car bombing in Mogadishu on February 27, 2014.  Government troops and Ethiopian troops captured the town of Rabdhure on March 6, 2014, resulting in the deaths of at least 12 individuals.

Al-Shabaab militants attacked a hotel in the town of Bulo-burde on March 18, 2014, resulting in the deaths of six government soldiers, three AMISOM peacekeeping personnel, and several militants.  Two UN employees were killed by Islamic militants in the town of Galkayo on April 7, 2014.

Foreign Secretary William Hague of Britain condemned the killed of the two UN employees.  A Somali member of parliament, Mohamed Rino, was killed in a car bombing in Mogadishu on April 21, 2014.  At least six individuals were killed in a bombing in Mogadishu on May 3, 2014.  At least 12 individuals were killed in a car bombing in Baidoa on May 12, 2014.

Al-Shabaab militants attacked the Somali parliament in Mogadishu on May 24, 2014, resulting in the deaths of three AMISOM peacekeeping personnel, four Somali government soldiers, one government police officer, and eleven militants.

The U.S. government, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, UN Security Council, and the European Union (EU) condemned the attack on May 24, 2014.

Al-Shabaab militants attacked the town of Bulo-burde on June 26, 2014, resulting in the deaths of two AMISOM peacekeeping troops, one civilian, and two militants.  The AMISOM contingent from Sierra Leone (850 troops) withdrew from Somalia on December 18, 2014.  Al-Shabaab militants attacked an AMISOM base in Mogadishu on December 26, 2014, resulting in the deaths of eight militants, five AMISOM personnel, and one civilian.  More than two million individuals have been displaced and more than 44,000 individuals have been killed during the conflict, including more than 20,000 civilians 1,600 Somali government soldiers, 17,000 Islamic militants, and 2,750 Ethiopian soldiers.

 

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