Main articles: Somali Civil War and United Somali Congress
Ali Mahdi Muhammad (Somali: Cali Mahdi Maxamed; born 1938) was president of Somalia from January (when Mohammed Farah Aidid removed the then president Mohamed Siad Barre) to November of 1991, but was not able in that time to exert control over the country. Following this, the nation fell into anarchy with the only power being held by local warlords and separatist groups. He presently lives in Mogadishu.
1.1 United Somali Congress (USC)
1.2 Transitional National Government (TNG)
United Somali Congress (USC)
He was a leading member of the Abgaal clan elements within the USC. Early in the Somali Civil War he and Mohammed Farah Aidid worked together to oust Siad Barre. But no sooner had Barre been ousted than Ali Mahdi Muhammad had himself declared Barre’s successor as interim President. The shock of the news caused an irreparable sundering of the USC between those who followed Ali Mahdi (“USC Mahdi”, mainly members of the Abgaal clan) and those who followed Aidid (who went on to create the Somali National Alliance, or “USC/SNA”).
The warring between these two leaders continued on through the 1992–95 UN missions to Somalia (UNOSOM I, UNOSOM II, and UNITAF). During 1995, Mohammed Aidid claimed the title of the President of Somalia. This intense rivalry continued on even after the death of Mohammed Farah Aidid, as SNA leadership was passed on to Aidid’s son, Hussein Mohammed Farah Aidid, who also claimed the Presidency of Somalia.
On December 17, 1996, Ali Mahdi Mohamed attacked Hussein Aidid’s headquarters after five days of fighting that left 135 dead in Mogadishu.
On December 22, 1997, Hussein Aidid relinquished the disputed title of President by signing the Cairo Declaration, in Cairo, Egypt following a peace process between Salbalar administration and Soodare Group. Thereafter, neither Aidid nor Ali Mahdi would have the claim to the Presidency. It was the first major step towards reconciliation since 1991.
On March 30, 1998, Ali Mahdi Mohamed and Hussein Aidid put together a peace plan which shared power over Mogadishu, ending a period of seven years of fighting since the ouster of Siad Barre.
Transitional National Government (TNG)
In November 2002, as a member of parliament of the Transitional National Government (TNG), the predecessor to the present Transitional Federal Government (TFG), Ali Mahdi Muhammad blamed Ethiopia for interfering in the meetings. He left the Eldoret conference in Kenya in to return to Mogadishu, saying the conference was a waste of time.
Muhammad Siad Barre President of Somalia
1991 – 1995 Succeeded by
Mohamed Farrah Aidid
He is accused of accepting large amounts of money from toxic dumping company’s to relieve their waste in Somali territorial waters, many of the toxic was discovered when the 2002 tsunami occurred in the Indian ocean.